The Executive Arm
The power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of Uganda, who also acts as head-of-state and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The President is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Parliament and also appoints the Cabinet.
The office of President is contested for every five years when the constitutional term of office expires.
The Vice President is second in command, ready to assume the Presidency should the need arise.
The primary responsibility of the Vice President of Uganda is to be ready at a moment’s notice to assume the Presidency if the President is unable to perform his duties. This can be because of the President’s death, resignation, or temporary incapacitation, or if the Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet judge that the President is no longer able to discharge the duties of the presidency.
The Prime Minister is a Co-coordinator of Government, and Head of Cabinet in Parliament. The office of the Prime Minister is charged with Coordination of Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies to ensure effective delivery of services to the people of Uganda.
The Cabinet of Uganda, according to the Constitution of Uganda, “shall consist of the President, the Vice President and such a number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State.”
Cabinet Ministers are deputized by Ministers of State.
The Legislative Arm
Members of Parliament are charged with the responsibility of passing laws which will provide good governance in the country. The government ministers answer to the people’s representatives on the floor of the house on matters affecting the citizenry.
he Judiciary is the third arm of Government, under the doctrine of separation of powers. The Lord Chief Justice, deputized by a Lord Deputy Chief Justice. heads this arm The superior courts of Uganda are: the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal and the High Court, respectively. The Constitutional Court sits whenever necessary.
The Judiciary is formed by the various Courts of Judicature, which are independent of the other arms of government. They include the magisterial courts, High Court, Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court.
The Uganda Judiciary has undergone tremendous changes since the turn of the last century to the present time. In that regard, following the enactment of the 1995 Constitution, the Judiciary structure has been redefined to consist of the following courts:
- Supreme Court
- Court of Appeal or Constitutional Court
- High Court
- Chief Magistrates Courts
- Grade I Magistrate’s Courts
- Grade II Magistrate’s Courts
- The Local Council Courts
- Family and Children Courts and Land.
The Judiciary is constitutionally supposed to:
- Administer justice through resolving disputes between citizens and between the State and citizens;
- Interpret the Constitution and the laws of Uganda; promote the rule of law and to contribute to the maintenance of order in society;
- Protect human rights of individuals and groups;
- Initiate, develop and implement training programmes for the development of the Judiciary staff;
- Contribute to the enforcement of law and order;
- Enroll and license Advocates;
- License and discipline Court Brokers;
- Keep custody of laws enacted as well as disseminate legal literature;
- Receive Government revenue accruing from courts; and
- Introduce modalities for out of court dispute resolution mechanisms to reduce the burden of cases on the courts.
The Uganda Judiciary’s mission statement for the period 2011/12-2016 is: An independent, competent, trusted and accountable Judiciary that administers justice to all.