The Ministry of Health is a government body responsible for providing the highest possible level of health services to all people in Uganda through the delivery of promotive, preventive, curative, palliative, and rehabilitative health services at all levels. Uganda’s national health system comprises all institutions, structures, and actors whose actions have the main purpose of achieving and sustaining good health for all people living in Uganda. The boundaries of the national health system cover the public sector, the private health delivery system, private health practitioners (PHP), the traditional and complementary medicine practitioners (TCMP) and the communities. The public sector also includes the health services of the army, police and prisons, while the private health delivery system comprises the private-not-for-profit organizations (PNFPs).
Some functions have been delegated to national autonomous institutions including; specialized clinical support functions to Uganda Blood Transfusion Service (UBTS), National Medical Stores, National Public Health Laboratories and Uganda Natural Chemotherapeutic Research Laboratory. Health professional councils and the National Drug Authority conduct regulatory functions on behalf of the Ministry of Health. Research activities are conducted by several research institutions and coordinated by the autonomous Uganda National Health Research Organization (UNHRO).